vii. Crowdsourced-based Flood Resilience in Jakarta, Indonesia

 

Interaction Type Public  -> Government ->  Public
Trigger event Disaster management agency of Jakarta wanted to have better base map and data for flood planning and reporting.
Domain Mapping for disaster management
Organisation Jakarta Disaster Management Agency (BPBD DKI Jakarta).
Actors Indonesian Disaster Management Agency (BNBP), Jakarta Disaster Management Agency (BPBD DKI Jakarta), Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) Australia, United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA,) University of Indonesia (UI), Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT), GFDRR, MIT Urban Risk Lab, USAID, Pacific Disaster Center (PDC)
Data sets OpenStreetMap (OSM)  data of neighborhood boundaries (Rukun Warga), religious, health, sports and government facilities, schools, roads, flood locations
Process Collecting Workshops, field survey using GPS and mobile devices, satellite tracing, crowd-reporting using social media
Feedback
  • Urban village leaders received paper poster maps of their villages.
  • Public able to send and received flood reports and alerts near-real time, making time-critical decision about their safety during flood emergencies.
Goal
  • Improve geographic information available for flood management
  • Improve geographic data sharing across formal and informal sectors
Side effects Crowdsource-based flood resilience in Jakarta has made others interested in the idea of crowdsourcing and using community mapping to collect base data and record data at a relevant scale.
Contact point Kate Chapman, Emir Hartato, Yantisa Akhadi, & Etienne Turpin.

Mapping Jakarta with OpenStreetMap (OSM)

Jakarta, Indonesia, is a large megacity that has frequent seasonal flooding issues. In 2012, Jakarta’s disaster management agency (BPBD DKI Jakarta) needed better data to prepare for the flood season. DFAT-Australia, UNOCHA, HOT, GFDRR and University of Indonesia assisted in the process.

The original idea was to ask the heads of the 267 urban villages the location of their critical infrastructure, then ask university students to help with technical mapping. Impact analysis using InaSAFE open source impact modeling software was then performed as part of a contingency planning process, and the data has been used to create government maps to report flood conditions and village heads have used poster maps to plan logistics when responding to flooding.

The project also created an open data set that can be used for a variety of analyses at the village, district and provincial levels. Using an open platform means that anyone can use the data and it can be updated easily as the information becomes outdated. The data collected is useful for flood management, allowing the government of Jakarta to show more detailed maps than previously available and increasing demand for additional mapping at a higher resolution.

One negative aspect of the methodology used is that while it did collect the data very quickly, the urban village officials do not have an easy way to update their area as the data changes.

Leveraging Accessibility of Local and Formal Knowledge

In 2013, Jakarta’s disaster management agency (BPBD DKI Jakarta), together with SMART Infrastructure Facility (University of Wollongong) and Twitter Inc. conducted a pilot study to develop PetaJakarta.org platform, enabling Jakarta’s citizens to report the locations of flood events using the social media network Twitter. The pilot study contributed to a public web-based real-time map of flood conditions powered by CogniCity Open Source Software. It produces megacity-scale visualisation of disasters using OSM basemap, crowd-sourced reporting, and government agency validations in real-time. The project demonstrated the value of social media within disaster management as an operational tool to provide decision support in the event of disaster.

Since its debut in 2013, the PetaJakarta.org platform has grown into a single, robust platform platform, that integrates local knowledges from various crowdsource tools (mainly social media and instant messaging) and formal knowledges from government agencies. By the end of 2016, the project has expanded to PetaBencana.id with support from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Urban Risk Lab, USAID, and Pacific Disaster Center (PDC). Since then, the PetaBencana.id platform has been used by million of Jakarta resident users to make time-critical decision about safety and navigation during emergency flood events; it has also been adopted by the National Emergency Management Agency (BNPB) to monitor flood events, improve response times, and share time-critical emergency information with residents.

Main lessons

  • Collaboration between different stakeholders, depending on their knowledge and capacity, means stakeholders can contribute to specific tasks and stages of crowdsourced-based disaster resilience.
  • Open data can be used at different levels of decision making policies such as village, district and provincial levels.
  • Difficulties in keeping data up to date is one of the most important concerns in terms of viability.
  • Data can be used in a variety of ways, including by governmental bodies for the creation of maps.
  • Sharing information and coordinating data amongst residents and government agencies fostering equitable and innovative practices of crowdsource use for disaster resilience.

*This case study is among the updated ones and was previously titled “Flood preparedness through OpenStreetMap, Jakarta, Indonesia”. The title changed as not only OSM is currently involved in the process.

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